Study Claims Transgenders Suffering Because Straight People Aren’t Dating Them – Psychology Today Report

Woman's Body

Researchers have long contended that transgender and “non-binary” individuals are at a substantially higher risk of mental illness and suicidal thoughts or actions than the rest of the population.

The attempted suicide rate ranges from 29.9 to 50.8 percent among transgender adolescents according to a paper released by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2018 — research often cited by even the most ardent LGBT advocacy groups.

Now, researchers are arguing that these individuals are further suffering because of American’s unwillingness to date transgender, “non-binary” and questioning individuals.

According to the researchers, Karen L. Blair and Rhea Ashley Hoskin, participants in their survey were asked to consider what type of individual would be included in their “hypothetical” pool of “potential dating partners.”

Participants were then given the options of “a cisgender woman,” “a cisgender man,” “a transgender woman,” “a transgender man” and “a person with a non-binary gender identification,” and told to choose all that apply.

Unsurprisingly, the two Canadian academics found that the vast majority of their 958 respondents would not consider dating someone who identifies as transgender.

“Recently, my colleague and I asked this question of just under 1,000 participants and we published our findings in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,” Blair wrote in a Sunday Psychology Today article laying out the pair’s findings.

“Our results indicated that 87.5% of the participants who were asked this very question only checked off the cisgender options and excluded transgender and non-binary individuals from their hypothetical dating pool,” she added.

And Blair argues, though the question may seem simple or even foolish, that it is anything but “inconsequential.”

“After all, relationships are one of our most important sources of social support. Indeed, our relationships play an important role in our overall mental and physical well-being and our relationships are a better predictor of how long we’ll live than smoking or obesity!” she continues.

Therefore, if relationships are a better indicator of health, well-being and life expectancy, the smaller “dating pool” created by lack of attraction from straight, “cisgender” people must have profound impacts on transgenders, Blair contends.

The remainder of her Psychology Today article did not shy away from the opportunity to not-so-subtly blaming straight people’s lack of attraction to the transgender community for higher rates of suicide and other mental health problems.

Progressive as she is, Blair included a disclaimer indicating that the goal of her research was not to shame anyone for their preferences or tell them who to pursue — everyone does have the “freedom to decide whom they date,” she said.

But just as previous research was done on the acceptance of different races into the American culture and dating pool, Blair argues her research will serve to illuminate the underlying “prejudice” that leads the straight community to find transgenders unattractive.

“However,” Blair wrote. “Understanding the extent to which trans individuals are excluded from the realm of dating can serve as a benchmark for where society currently stands with respect to including trans and non-binary individuals.”

And it is not until the straight community begins dating transgenders at a higher rate that Western civilization will truly show itself to be accepting and safe for the LGBT community.

“(I)t is one thing to make space for diverse gender identities within our workplaces, schools, washrooms and public spaces,” Blair wrote. “But it is another to fully include and accept gender diversity within our families and romantic relationships.

“Ultimately, however, this research underscores the consequences of shared societal prejudices that impact our trans friends, partners, family members, and coworkers on a daily basis.”

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Boeing’s 737 MAX software outsourced to $12.80-an-hour engineers – By Peter Robison (Sidney Morning Herald) 29 June 2019

It remains the mystery at the heart of Boeing’s 737 MAX crisis: how did a company renowned for meticulous design make seemingly basic software mistakes leading to a pair of deadly crashes?

Longtime Boeing engineers say the effort was complicated by a push to outsource work to lower-paid contractors.

The MAX software — plagued by issues that could keep the planes grounded months longer after US regulators this week revealed a new flaw — was developed at a time Boeing was laying off experienced engineers and pressing suppliers to cut costs.

Were cost cuts ultimately behind the Boeing 737 MAX disasters?
Were cost cuts ultimately behind the Boeing 737 MAX disasters?

Increasingly, the iconic American planemaker and its subcontractors have relied on temporary workers making as little as $US9 ($12.80) an hour to develop and test software, often from countries lacking a deep background in aerospace — notably India.

In offices across from Seattle’s Boeing Field, recent college graduates employed by the Indian software developer HCL Technologies occupied several rows of desks, said Mark Rabin, a former Boeing software engineer who worked in a flight-test group that supported the MAX.

The coders from HCL were typically designing to specifications set by Boeing. Still, “it was controversial because it was far less efficient than Boeing engineers just writing the code,” Rabin said. Frequently, he recalled, “it took many rounds going back and forth because the code was not done correctly.”

Boeing’s cultivation of Indian companies appeared to pay other dividends. In recent years, it has won several orders for Indian military and commercial aircraft, such as a $US22 billion one in January 2017 to supply SpiceJet.

That order included 100 737-MAX 8 jets and represented Boeing’s largest order ever from an Indian airline, a coup in a country dominated by Airbus.

Based on resumes posted on social media, HCL engineers helped develop and test the MAX’s flight-display software, while employees from another Indian company, Cyient, handled software for flight-test equipment.

Costly delay

In one post, an HCL employee summarised his duties with a reference to the now-infamous model, which started flight tests in January 2016: “Provided quick workaround to resolve production issue which resulted in not delaying flight test of 737-MAX (delay in each flight test will cost very big amount for Boeing).”

Boeing said the company did not rely on engineers from HCL and Cyient for the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, which has been linked to the Lion Air crash last October and the Ethiopian Airlines disaster in March.

The Chicago-based planemaker also said it didn’t rely on either firm for another software issue disclosed after the crashes: a cockpit warning light that wasn’t working for most buyers.

“Boeing has many decades of experience working with supplier/partners around the world,” a company spokesman said. “Our primary focus is on always ensuring that our products and services are safe, of the highest quality and comply with all applicable regulations.”

In a statement, HCL said it “has a strong and long-standing business relationship with The Boeing Company, and we take pride in the work we do for all our customers. However, HCL does not comment on specific work we do for our customers. HCL is not associated with any ongoing issues with 737 MAX.”

Boeing's 737 MAX planes have been grounded since March. Now a new design fault has emerged.

Recent simulator tests by the Federal Aviation Administration suggest the software issues on Boeing’s best-selling model run deeper. The company’s shares fell this week after the regulator found a further problem with a computer chip that experienced a lag in emergency response when it was overwhelmed with data.

Engineers who worked on the MAX, which Boeing began developing eight years ago to match a rival Airbus plane, have complained of pressure from managers to limit changes that might introduce extra time or cost.

“Boeing was doing all kinds of things, everything you can imagine, to reduce cost, including moving work from Puget Sound, because we’d become very expensive here,” said Rick Ludtke, a former Boeing flight controls engineer laid off in 2017. “All that’s very understandable if you think of it from a business perspective. Slowly over time it appears that’s eroded the ability for Puget Sound designers to design.”

Rabin, the former software engineer, recalled one manager saying at an all-hands meeting that Boeing didn’t need senior engineers because its products were mature. “I was shocked that in a room full of a couple hundred mostly senior engineers we were being told that we weren’t needed,” said Rabin, who was laid off in 2015.

‘Nonsense’

The typical jetliner has millions of parts — and millions of lines of code — and Boeing has long turned over large portions of the work to suppliers who follow its detailed design blueprints.

Starting with the 787 Dreamliner, launched in 2004, it sought to increase profits by instead providing high-level specifications and then asking suppliers to design more parts themselves.

The thinking was “they’re the experts, you see, and they will take care of all of this stuff for us,” said Frank McCormick, a former Boeing flight-controls software engineer who later worked as a consultant to regulators and manufacturers. “This was just nonsense.”

Sales are another reason to send the work overseas. In exchange for an $US11 billion order in 2005 from Air India, Boeing promised to invest $US1.7 billion in Indian companies. That was a boon for HCL and other software developers from India, such as Cyient, whose engineers were widely used in computer-services industries but not yet prominent in aerospace.

Boeing 737 MAXs around the world have been grounded since March 13.

Rockwell Collins, which makes cockpit electronics, had been among the first aerospace companies to source significant work in India in 2000, when HCL began testing software there for the Iowa-based company. By 2010, HCL employed more than 400 people at design, development and verification centers for Rockwell Collins in Chennai and Bangalore.

That same year, Boeing opened what it called a “center of excellence” with HCL in Chennai, saying the companies would partner “to create software critical for flight test.” In 2011, Boeing named Cyient, then known as Infotech, to a list of its “suppliers of the year” for design, stress analysis and software engineering on the 787 and the 747-8 at another centre in Hyderabad.

The Boeing rival also relies in part on offshore engineers. In addition to supporting sales, the planemakers say global design teams add efficiency as they work around the clock.

But outsourcing has long been a sore point for some Boeing engineers, who, in addition to fearing job losses say it has led to communications issues and mistakes.

Moscow mistakes

Boeing has also expanded a design centre in Moscow. At a meeting with a chief 787 engineer in 2008, one staffer complained about sending drawings back to a team in Russia 18 times before they understood that the smoke detectors needed to be connected to the electrical system, said Cynthia Cole, a former Boeing engineer who headed the engineers’ union from 2006 to 2010.

“Engineering started becoming a commodity,” said Vance Hilderman, who co-founded a company called TekSci that supplied aerospace contract engineers and began losing work to overseas competitors in the early 2000s.

US-based avionics companies in particular moved aggressively, shifting more than 30 per cent of their software engineering offshore versus 10 per cent for European-based firms in recent years, said Hilderman, an avionics safety consultant with three decades of experience whose recent clients include most of the major Boeing suppliers.

With a strong US dollar, a big part of the attraction was price. Engineers in India made around $US5 an hour; it’s now $US9 or $US10, compared with $US35 to $US40 for those in the US on an H1B visa, he said. But he’d tell clients the cheaper hourly wage equated to more like $US80 because of the need for supervision, and he said his firm won back some business to fix mistakes.

Dozens of grounded Boeing 737 MAX plans crowd a parking area in Seattle. Are there other Boeing models with software problems?

HCL, once known as Hindustan Computers, was founded in 1976 by billionaire Shiv Nadar and now has more than $US8.6 billion in annual sales. With 18,000 employees in the US and 15,000 in Europe, HCL is a global company and has deep expertise in computing, said Sukamal Banerjee, a vice president.

It has won business from Boeing on that basis, not on price, he said: “We came from a strong R&D background.”

Still, for the 787, HCL gave Boeing a remarkable price – free, according to Sam Swaro, an associate vice president who pitched HCL’s services at a San Diego conference sponsored by Avionics International magazine in June.

He said the company took no up-front payments on the 787 and only started collecting payments based on sales years later, an “innovative business model” he offered to extend to others in the industry.

The 787 entered service three years late and billions of dollars over budget in 2011, in part because of confusion introduced by the outsourcing strategy.

Under Dennis Muilenburg, a longtime Boeing engineer who became chief executive in 2015, the company has said that it planned to bring more work back in-house for its newest planes.

Engineer backwater

The MAX became Boeing’s top seller soon after it was offered in 2011. But for ambitious engineers, it was something of a “backwater,” said Peter Lemme, who designed the 767’s automated flight controls and is now a consultant.

The MAX was an update of a 50-year-old design, and the changes needed to be limited enough that Boeing could produce the new planes like cookie cutters, with few changes for either the assembly line or airlines. “As an engineer that’s not the greatest job,” he said.

Rockwell Collins, now a unit of United Technologies, won the Max contract for cockpit displays, and it has relied in part on HCL engineers in India, Iowa and the Seattle area. A United Technologies spokeswoman didn’t respond to a request for comment.

Under Dennis Muilenburg, a longtime Boeing engineer who became chief executive in 2015, the company has said it plans to bring more work back in-house for its newest planes.
Under Dennis Muilenburg, a longtime Boeing engineer who became chief executive in 2015, the company has said it plans to bring more work back in-house for its newest planes.

Contract engineers from Cyient helped test flight test equipment. Charles LoveJoy, a former flight-test instrumentation design engineer at the company, said engineers in the US would review drawings done overnight in India every morning at 7:30 am.

“We did have our challenges with the India team,” he said. “They met the requirements, per se, but you could do it better.”

Multiple investigations – including a US Justice Department criminal probe – are trying to unravel how and when critical decisions were made about the MAX’s software. During the crashes of Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines planes that killed 346 people, investigators suspect, the MCAS system pushed the planes into uncontrollable dives because of bad data from a single sensor.

That design violated basic principles of redundancy for generations of Boeing engineers, and the company apparently never tested to see how the software would respond, Lemme said.

‘Stunning fail’

“It was a stunning fail,” he said. “A lot of people should have thought of this problem – not one person – and asked about it.”

Boeing also has disclosed that it learned soon after MAX deliveries began in 2017 that a warning light that might have alerted crews to the issue with the sensor wasn’t installed correctly in the flight-display software.

A Boeing statement in May, explaining why the company didn’t inform regulators at the time, said engineers had determined it wasn’t a safety issue.

“Senior company leadership,” the statement added, “was not involved in the review.”

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San Francisco CA: School Board Votes to Paint Over Historic Works of Art – Erasing History to Fight ‘Racism’ – by Vivian Ho (Guardian) 27 June 2019

 

San Francisco school board votes to paint over murals showing slavery and violence

The San Francisco Board of Education is currently considering the removal and destruction of 83-year-old murals depicting the life of George Washington, which treat the issues of slavery and Native American genocide. The campaign against the art work is censorious and deeply misguided, bound up with contemporary identity politics, and has nothing progressive about it.

 

A mural at George Washington high school.
A mural at George Washington high school.

The San Francisco school board has unanimously voted to paint over a series of graphic school murals featuring a dead Native American and black slaves, overruling community outcry over censorship in favor of righting a historical wrong.

SF Censorship

“People keep pointing out that this is art, but it can be art and it can also be racist,” said Alison Collins, a board member. “The people who created the art may not have intended it to be harmful, but that doesn’t mean it isn’t harmful.”

Thirteen murals in total have covered the walls of George Washington High School since its opening in 1936, two of which have been the subject of complaints since the 1960s. The debate has re-emerged over the last couple of years due to the possibility of the school’s designation as a historical landmark, an action that would make the murals very difficult to remove.

Mural 00

The works were created shortly before the opening of the school by renowned artist Victor Arnautoff, a Russian immigrant, as a project of the federal government’s Works Progress Administration (WPA).

The artwork at George Washington high school in San Francisco has faced heightened scrutiny since April, when an ad hoc committee recommended that it be archived and removed. But the murals themselves have been the subject of student complaint for at least five decades.

The 1,600-sq-ft New Deal-era art installation, painted by the Russian emigre Victor Arnautoff, depicts the life of Washington in 13 scenes and spans the space of the school’s staircase and lobby.

mural 2

In one, Washington stands over a map of a young America while pointing westward as four white settlers with rifles walk over the body of a deceased Native American. At the dead man’s feet, another Native American, wearing a headdress, shares a pipe with an armed white man.

In another scene, Washington meets a white man gesturing at some of Washington’s slaves at work: a shoeless black man shucking corn, three stooped black women picking cotton and another black man hammering wood for a group of white men manufacturing barrels.

mural 1

“I was never taught the purpose or message of these murals when I was in high school,” said Nancy Trong, a George Washington high school alum, at the school board meeting. “These murals are not teaching students about the history of slavery or historical genocide that happened under George Washington and other settlers. Instead, it is teaching students to normalize violence and death of our black and indigenous communities.”

Arnautoff, the mural painter,  had an extraordinary history. During the civil war that followed the October Revolution in Russia, Arnautoff served as a cavalry captain in the counter-revolutionary White Army. Later, he supervised the cavalry of a Chinese warlord! He eventually emigrated to the US and arrived in San Francisco in 1925. Four years later, Arnautoff moved his family to Mexico and became an assistant muralist to Diego Rivera, the great left-wing Mexican artist. In the 1930s, he became the best-known muralist in San Francisco.

In the meantime, Arnautoff had shifted politically to the left and joined the Communist Party. While teaching art at Stanford University in the 1950s, he was investigated and interrogated by the House Un-American Activities Committee. Stanford was urged to dismiss him, which to its credit, the university did not do. After retiring, Arnautoff moved to the Soviet Union where he died in 1979.

Along with the striking murals at George Washington High School, Arnautoff completed numerous projects around San Francisco, including murals at the Palo Alto Clinic, Presidio Chapel, the library at the California School of Fine Arts and Coit Tower.

The complaints against the high school murals—produced during a period when left-wing views dominated artistic circles in San Francisco, a city that had experienced a historic general strike only two years earlier, in July 1934—are wrongheaded from every point of view.

The cost of painting over the murals will be at least $600,000, while obscuring the artwork with panels could cost up to $825,000.

Many argued at the meeting that it did not appear to be the artist’s intent to celebrate these acts of violence and subjugation, and that students needed to learn about this too-often overlooked part of this country’s history.

“These murals are not racist,” argued Jeff Powers, a member of the Socialist Workers Party. “They don’t glorify racism. They’re an artist’s interpretation of a society that is racist, and it’s important for us to study that and look at these murals.”

mural 3

In one of the disputed murals, a dead Native American is shown on the ground in a scene depicting the westward expansion of US capitalism in the mid-19th century. The mural is obviously intended to shed light on the forced removal and mass destruction of the Native American population and offers a critical view that was previously often neglected or ignored in American schools.

In the second controversial mural, slaves belonging to George Washington are shown working in the fields at Mount Vernon, Washington’s estate in Virginia, and presumably being bought or sold at auction. In other words, Arnautoff’s work was hardly hagiographic. It attempted to present the contradictory reality of early American life.

Arnautoff carried out the work using the buon fresco process (also used by Rivera in his murals in Detroit and elsewhere), “painting with earth-tone pigments directly onto the building’s wet plaster before it dried,” according to the Richmond District Blog.

But those in favor of the removal pointed out that by presenting the murals without context, the school wasn’t educating the students. Instead, those unaffected by the history grew inured to the violent images, joking to “meet under the dead Indian”, while the students from the communities depicted suffered in silence.

“It’s not a matter of censorship, it’s a matter of human right: the right to learn without hostile environments,” said Paloma Flores, a member of California’s Pitt River Tribe who is also the district’s Indian education program coordinator. “Even the best intentions do harm, and one’s intent does not negate all the lived experience that we live every single day of our lives.”

OutsideLands.org reports, “Since murals have to be painted on a wet surface, Mr. Arnautoff had to follow right behind the plasterers, and a scene, once begun, had to be completed that same day, in order that the walls did not dry. Carpenters and plasterers worked all around the building, while Mr. Arnautoff was above on a scaffold.

“The artist was so rushed for time that he had to improvise as he was painting. Covering about nine feet of wall a day, he sometimes worked from ten to twelve hours a day to finish a given section. The murals took ten months to complete; ironically, the school was not opened until a full year later.”

This remarkable artistic achievement, for which Arnautoff did extensive historical research, now faces possible destruction (the murals are so embedded that they cannot be removed from the walls), thanks to petty bourgeois elements who claim the work is “offensive” and “traumatizing.”

The San Francisco Unified School Board (SFUSD) appointed a “Reflection and Action Group” largely made up of opponents of the murals to make a recommendation about whether to keep or remove the work. The group recently voted 12 to 1 in favor of removing all 13 murals from the walls.

The group members came to their recommendation, they asserted in a statement, “due to the continued historical and current trauma of Native Americans and African Americans with these depictions in the mural that glorifies slavery, genocide, colonization, manifest destiny, white supremacy, oppression, etc. This mural doesn’t represent SFUSD values of social justice, diversity, united, student-centered. It’s not student-centered if it’s focused on the legacy of artists, rather than the experience of the students.”

No objective observer could possibly conclude that the murals “glorify” slavery or genocide. The use of phrases such as “social justice” and “bias through stereotypes” are simply plucked out of thin air and divorced from any historical or political context to serve a right-wing and repressive agenda.

Tellingly, the current identity politics campaign arises in regard to a critical portrayal of Washington’s historical role. Numerous attempts have been made by similar layers in recent years to deny any progressive content to the American Revolution, one of the earthshaking events that ushered in the modern world. As the WSWS has explained, the American Revolution “was a bourgeois-democratic revolution, and not a socialist revolution. It could assert universal human equality, but it could not bring it about. Yet, like all great historical events, it had implications and consequences that went beyond the constraints imposed upon it by its own time.”

George Washington, the subject of the murals in question and the school’s namesake, was a contradictory figure, like all bourgeois revolutionaries. A slave owner, he also led a struggle against the powerful British monarchy, the divine right of kings and for a world rooted in the progressive ideals of the Enlightenment, a struggle that inspired revolutionaries and revolutions in different parts of the world. The “implications and consequences” of the American Revolution ultimately included the bloody conflict that erupted some 80 years later, the Civil War, which violently destroyed the slave system.

The great abolitionist Frederick Douglas, in his famous 1852 speech, “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?,” indicted slavery and inequality in the US, but pointed at the same time to the radical impulse of the American Revolution. He paid this tribute to the Founding Fathers, “With them, nothing was ‘settled’ that was not right. With them, justice, liberty and humanity were ‘final’; not slavery and oppression. You may well cherish the memory of such men. They were great in their day and generation.”

The claim made by Stevon Cook, president of the San Francisco Board of Education, that Arnautoff’s honest and dynamic murals are “offensive to certain communities” (New York Times) simply doesn’t hold water. It largely “offends” middle class elements who do not want students to encounter complex and challenging art work. In the end, well-heeled African Americans and other prosperous minorities fear the radicalizing influence of such efforts.

In any event, if all potentially “offensive” art were removed, what would be left? Notably, the Times article admits that when a class of 49 freshman was asked to write essays about the frescoes, “Only four favored removal.” One student wrote, “The fresco shows us exactly how brutal colonization and genocide really were and are. The fresco is a warning and reminder of the fallibility of our hallowed leaders.”

While scrolling through the comments sections beneath the various articles published following the release of the Reflection and Action Group’s recommendation, it is difficult to find a single reader supporting the removal of the murals. Many school alumni and teachers, as well as current students, have criticized the group and expressed support for the murals. Some of the alumni argue that exposure to Arnautoff’s work was one of the most memorable educational experiences during their time at the school.

On one blog, Stephanie Glick Dove wrote, “Please do not whitewash our history. It’s dangerous not to have these images of our history to learn from. We need to keep examples of our past to save our future.”

Another comment reads, “Why would anyone want them removed or destroyed, they are art. I thought only fascists destroyed works of art. It’s hard to believe the painter a persecuted Russian immigrant in 1936 would create something offensive and city officials would let him do it.”

One could draw a parallel between the current attack on the high school murals and the campaign Arnautoff and other left-wing artists faced when painting the Coit Tower murals, a project that coincided almost exactly with the 1934 General Strike.

Because Arnautoff and his collaborators adopted a realistic and sympathetic attitude toward the strike in their work, they faced scrutiny as “communist agitators.” The opening of the murals was delayed and at the time of their public unveiling, a San Francisco Chronicle columnist commented, “The very fact that there is a continuous controversy about the Coit Tower murals would show that there is something wrong with them. … The humble writer’s shrewd guess is that the next generation will have these daubs painted out in a delicate light green by a union house painter.” Mural at George Washington High School

Another historical parallel, of course, and one that is equally unflattering, would be the destruction of Diego Rivera’s fresco, Man at the Crossroads, in the lobby of New York City’s Rockefeller Center in 1934. Nelson Rockefeller ordered the plastering over of the work because it included an image of Vladimir Lenin.

Suppose an artist had the audacity to propose painting a mural depicting the millions of victims of US wars of aggression in Iraq and Afghanistan in a high school today? Or a work exposing the brutal treatment of children and families held in private detention centers on the US border with Mexico? What sort of reception would this receive from the media and political establishment?

Historical debates reveal as much or more about the present as they do about the past.

The current controversy around the George Washington High School murals painted in 1936 points to two interrelated processes: the turbulent movement of the working class and youth to the left and the rapid movement of selfish, aspiring layers of the upper middle class in the other direction.

https://archive.fo/mdGaN

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中国:维吾尔人和政治伊斯兰教 – 2019年6月25日

谷歌翻译
Gǔgē fānyì
………………..

我记得,正如大多数人所做的那样,中央情报局在中国的一些邻国的帮助下,投入了3000万美元来破坏西藏的稳定,基本上资助和培训了康巴叛乱的参与者,并最终寻求取消来自西藏的达赖喇嘛 – 他们做了。他们护送他离开西藏到达兰萨拉。在冷战期间,维吾尔人也做出了类似的努力,从未真正起步过。在这两种情况下,你都有宗教信仰挥舞着支持独立或自治的愿望,这当然是任何国家的诅咒。美国大使查斯。 H.弗里曼。

由于我们的媒体仅限于不受支持的指控,我收集了几个关于新疆事件的第一手资料,新疆是我自己从未去过的中国地区。

许多中国人认为维吾尔族是一个生活在中国之前的土地上的一个被蒙古的白人帝国主义军队的后代。埃德加·斯诺[1]于1937年访问新疆,并报道说,“特别是在九世纪,当大量的Ouigour土耳其人(其伟大的领袖塞尔柱人尚未出生)被召唤到唐阁以镇压叛乱,伊斯兰教在中国根深蒂固。在他们取得成功之后,许多Ouigours获得了头衔和大型庄园的奖励,并在西北部和四川和云南定居。几个世纪以来,穆罕默德人坚决抵制中国人的吸收,但逐渐失去了土耳其文化,采用了大量的中国人,并且或多或少地接受了中国法律。然而在十九世纪,他们仍然有足够的力量为权力做出两次巨大的竞标:一次是杜维秀在云南建立一个王国并宣布自己为苏丹苏莱曼;最后,在1864年,当穆罕默德人控制了整个西北地区,甚至入侵了Hupeh。“

伊斯兰教既不是维吾尔人的本土宗教,也不是他们唯一的宗教信仰,但是,在它的Wahabbi形式中,它在全世界造成了问题,我们可以感谢两位热心的基督徒,吉米卡特和兹比格涅夫布热津斯基,[2]他们认为团结一致欧亚大陆,“对美国霸权唯一可能的挑战。”

1979年,苏联进入阿富汗前几个月,布热津斯基起草,卡特签署了一项绝密的总统令,授权中央情报局培训原教旨主义穆斯林,以对抗苏联共产党的异教徒以及保守的逊尼派伊斯兰教的所有不信者和圣战组织的反恐战争。阿富汗的苏联士兵成为中央情报局历史上最大的秘密行动。[2]布热津斯基的“危机之弧”策略激怒了中亚的穆斯林,在经济危机期间破坏了苏联的稳定,当Le Nouvel Observateur后来问他是否有任何遗憾时,布热津斯基猛地说,“对世界历史最重要的是什么?一些激动的穆斯林或中欧的解放?“

维吾尔族人在第二次世界大战期间与日本人合作,并在靖国神社参拜靖国神社之后与美国政府客户热比娅卡德尔合作,将新疆战后归还中国政府称为“重新征服”。卡德尔女士的关系很有趣。 20世纪90年代末,东土耳其斯坦伊斯兰运动的创始人哈桑·马苏姆将其总部迁至喀布尔,并会见了乌萨马·本·拉丹和受中央情报局训练的塔利班,协调中亚各地的行动。 1995年伊斯坦布尔市市长雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安宣称:“东突厥斯坦[新疆]不仅是突厥人民的家园,也是突厥历史,文明和文化的摇篮。忘记这将导致我们对自己的历史,文明和文化的无知。东土耳其斯坦的殉道者是我们的殉道者。“在埃尔多安土耳其之下,土耳其成为运往叙利亚的国际恐怖分子的过境点,土耳其机场充斥着乘坐土耳其护照旅行的维吾尔人。

二十年后,在1999年,中央情报局的伊斯兰战略家格雷厄姆·富勒宣布:“指导伊斯兰教进化并帮助他们对抗我们的敌人的政策在阿富汗对俄罗斯人的表现非常好。同样的理论仍然可以用来破坏俄罗斯剩余的权力,特别是对抗中国在中亚的影响力。“[3]

我们将回到富勒先生那里,但首先,来自F. William Engdahl的一些背景,“今天西方 – 特别是华盛顿 – 正在进行针对中国稳定的全面非正规战争。最近几个月,西方媒体和华盛顿政府已经开始对中国西北部新疆的大规模拘禁营地发出色调和呐喊,据说多达一百万维吾尔族华人被拘留并接受各种形式的“再教育”。关于这些指控的一些事情值得注意,尤其是所有这些都来自西方媒体和像人类Ri这样的“民主”非政府组织 观察,其真实性的记录留下了一些不足之处。“

以不容忍为目标抓住中国将是艰苦的工作。这本最早出版的印刷书籍的版本 – 金刚经的九世纪中文译本 – 写着“为了普遍免费发行”。虽然三分之二的中国人是西方意义上的无神论者,四分之一是非宗教道家,他们的宪法保障政府批准的宗教组织的礼拜自由,他们的政府支持七十四所神学院,七千七百座西藏寺院,三千宗宗教组织,八万五千宗教场所和三十万全职天主教,新教,佛教,古代中国人,道教和穆斯林神职人员。 2000年的人口普查记录了2030万穆斯林:120万哈萨克人,840万维吾尔人和980万回族。哈萨克人和回族穆斯林都没有造成麻烦。

富勒先生与维吾尔族领导人在名字基础上。波士顿马拉松Tsarnaev兄弟的叔叔Ruslan Tsarni在20世纪90年代与富勒的女儿萨曼莎结婚,并且是中情局签约的兰德公司的雇员。在2013年波士顿爆炸事件后的媒体采访中,“鲁斯兰叔叔”在谴责他的两名侄子同时核实联邦调查局对他们的描绘时表现过度。媒体忽视了这样一个事实,即Tsarni不仅担任RAND和USAID等中央情报局前线的顾问,还担任Halliburton的承包商,但甚至建立了一个名为车臣国际组织大会的实体,该组织使用富勒的马里兰州支持高加索地区的伊斯兰分离主义武装分子。 home作为其注册地址。

在2000年代在巴基斯坦部署伊斯兰主义者以破坏中国的基础设施,在缅甸破坏中缅能源资产以及整个苏丹,利比亚和叙利亚扼杀中国的石油和天然气富勒说:“维吾尔人确实与外面的穆斯林团体保持联系新疆,其中一些人在这个过程中被激进化为更广泛的圣战政治,少数人早先参与了在阿富汗的游击队或恐怖主义训练,有些人与国际穆斯林圣战者在世界范围内为穆斯林独立斗争而斗争。“富勒指派他们利用2008年北京夏季奥运会,削弱对中国政府的信任,并挑起西方媒体可能谴责为“人权犯罪”的镇压。在奥运会开幕前三周,他主持了一次会议,“东突厥斯坦:共产党执政60年”和国家民主基金会,NED,[4]为世界维吾尔代表大会(WUC)的移民组织处理公关由亿万富翁热比娅卡德尔[5]和她的丈夫,美国之音员工西迪克鲁兹领导。他们的意识形态[6]很熟悉。

在奥运会前夕,中国南方航空公司的一次自杀性爆炸事件被挫败,但新疆南部喀什的恐怖分子在开幕前四天杀死了十六名警察。第二年,维吾尔族极端分子在乌鲁木齐又杀害了两百人,但西方媒体拒绝将这些袭击描述为恐怖主义和暴力行为的继续:

2013年10月:北京天安门广场的ETIM袭击造成五人死亡。
2014年2月:昆明火车站的一次刀袭击造成30人死亡。
2014年4月:乌鲁木齐发生一起刀袭炸弹袭击,造成3人死亡,79人受伤。
2014年5月:两辆汽车撞上了乌鲁木齐的一个市场,袭击者投掷爆炸物,造成31人死亡。
2014年9月:自杀式炸弹袭击和冲突造成50人死亡,50人受伤。
2015年10月:对煤矿的刀攻击造成50人死亡。

然后是叙利亚战争,在2017年5月叙利亚和中国商人在北京举行的会议期间,叙利亚驻中国大使[7]以惊人的数字惊吓了5000名记者,据称他们在叙利亚争夺的维吾尔族人数为5000人。各种圣战组织。许多人已经返回中国,12,900人(维吾尔族家庭坚持旅行和待在一起,甚至在监狱里)被判处长达两年的徒刑,主要是因为非法入境并被关押在再教育营地。 NED没有隐瞒其参与:

国民民主进程

中国(新疆/东突厥斯坦)。亚洲中国[新疆/东突厥斯坦]维吾尔人权项目的宣传和推广。 $ 310,000。

提高对维吾尔人权问题的认识,并在全球范围内突出这些问题。受让人将研究,记录并提供有关影响维吾尔族在中国的侵犯人权行为的独立而准确的信息。它还将与中国公民进行外联,以改善维吾尔人的人权状况。受助人将为维吾尔族青年组织领导和宣传培训研讨会;监督,记录和突出东突厥斯坦/新疆的侵犯人权行为;并加强对维吾尔族问题的宣传

今天,NED资金支持世界维吾尔代表大会(WUC),称中国的新疆省“东突厥斯坦”和中国的新疆政府称为“中国占领东突厥斯坦”,发表文章如“热门:热比娅卡德尔的简介”,无畏的维吾尔独立活动家,“并承认,卡德尔寻求维吾尔独立于中国。

面对武装叛乱,大多数州实施戒严或紧急状态,正如英国在1945年至1957年间在马来亚所做的那样以及美国在“爱国者法案”中所做的那样,但中国决定 – 尽管民众愤慨 – 将其损失和游戏归还漫长的比赛。

中国与哈萨克斯坦,吉尔吉斯斯坦,俄罗斯,塔吉克斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦共同成立了上海合作组织(SCO),[1]政治,经济和安全联盟,他们停止为维吾尔恐怖分子提供资金和进出的走廊。中国。此后,上海合作组织扩大到包括印度和巴基斯坦,伊朗已开始加入进程,使其成为世界上面积和人口最多的安全协定,也是唯一一个成员包括四个核大国的协定。

形成上海合作组织比缓和公众愤慨更容易。受害者亲属的闻所未闻的诉讼指责政府反向歧视,因此他们加强了安全并公布了他们的目标:

恢复法律和秩序
防止恐怖分子施加更多暴力
使用’高强度调节’
遏制恐怖主义在新疆以外的蔓延
从社会中清除极端分子和分裂分子。

社区中心 – 在西部新闻界标记为“集中营”,教育农村维吾尔人关于宗教极端主义的危险,并培训他们从事城市工作。

2013年,习主席访问了欧亚大陆,并为30亿人提出了“一带一路”倡议,旨在打造世界上最具市场潜力的无与伦比的市场,并建立了从土库曼斯坦到乌兹别克斯坦,塔吉克斯坦和吉尔吉斯斯坦的中国天然气管道。中国的其他西部管道,输电线路,铁路和公路网络贯穿新疆维吾尔自治区。

北京随后将工作岗位转移到新疆,开设职业学校,培养农村青年的识字和工作技能,并发誓保护邻国免受恐怖主义侵害,以换取他们的回报承诺。为了在省内创造就业机会,习近平将四十五家中国顶级公司和八十家财富500强制造商的投资转移到乌鲁木齐。公司投资从2015年的100亿美元增加到2017年的150亿美元,2017年和2018年的基础设施投资达700亿美元,使年货物出货量超过1亿吨,目标是每小时离开15个欧洲国家首都。 50万维吾尔族人已经从偏远的村庄搬迁到城市,作为结果,2016年有60万维吾尔人摆脱了贫困,2017年有312,000人,2018年有40万人。最后一位贫困的维吾尔人将在2020年中期加入现金经济。

真正的战争正在我们的媒体上进行,一位工程师在令人心碎的故事中遇到了一个典型的例子,那就是历史悠久的喀什老城的野蛮破坏,“华盛顿邮报”称之为“古老的文化,被推土机”,“纽约时报”,为了保护古城,中国动摇了它,“时间”,“撕毁旧喀什:另一次打击维吾尔人。”Patrik Meyer教授接受了这个故事:

作为一名游客,这些头条新闻也引起了我的共鸣。我希望保持喀什老城区不受影响,并能沿着土坯房两旁的狭窄阴影小巷漫步。但是,如果我对其居民的生活条件和安全负责,以及对喀什噶尔的大规模现代化负责,那么我会更加积极地看待北京的转变。鉴于我在2010年至2013年期间获得了几乎前所未有的访问权,以便在新疆进行民族政治研究以及我在土木工程方面的强大背景,我认为自己有能力提供更广泛的视角,以便在批评KOT更新时提供更多关于西方记者提出的问题的观点。项目。一项对西方媒体的简单调查显示,对北京重建KOT的严厉批评建立在四个核心论点上:维吾尔族历史遗产的破坏,维吾尔族社会结构的破坏,维吾尔族在项目中的声音缺失,以及足够的抗震性能现有的房屋。此外,西方记者经常争辩说,北京在喀什的作品的目的是削弱甚至抹去维吾尔人的身份,而不是改善他们的生活条件。

KOT的历史价值是无可争议的,但它没有西方批评家所假设的那么重要。虽然有些房子是百年纪念的,有魅力的庭院和装饰精美的木制框架,但大多数都是建造不良的新旧泥土和砖石墙。因此,虽然整个老城区具有重要的历史意义

但是,与2018年8月在联合国消除种族歧视委员会开始的冲击相比,KOT的破坏是小啤酒,然后定期审查中国遵守“消除一切形式种族国际公约”的情况。歧视。盖伊麦克杜格尔是一名独立的联合国机构的美国非专业成员,他声称中国有一百万穆斯林实习。人权高专办的官方新闻稿显示,其唯一的美国成员仅提及所谓的再教育营地,并表示她“深切关注”有关“可信的报道”,指控在“拘留营”大规模拘留数百万维吾尔族穆斯林少数民族。据报道,McDougall’在听证会上的言论中没有指明该信息来源’,会议视频证实McDougall没有提供她的索赔来源。虽然路透社没有透露任何一个消息来源的报道,但“联合国认为,中国在秘密摄像头中拥有数百万的权利,这令人难以置信。”

随后,中国邀请联合国,欧盟和世界穆斯林大会派遣视察员进行独立调查。在欧盟和土耳其衰落的情况下,有11个穆斯林国家接受了。穆斯林委员会的报告称赞中国对穆斯林的待遇,一名检察官穆塔兹扎赫拉洛och接受了印度时报的采访:

“在这次访问期间,我没有发现任何强迫劳动或文化和宗教压迫的事件,”巴基斯坦驻华使馆代表穆塔兹·扎赫拉·巴洛赫周四告诉国营的环球时报。

“我们在清真寺遇到的伊玛目以及新疆伊斯兰教学院的学生和老师告诉我们,他们享有实行伊斯兰教的自由,中国政府对新疆各地清真寺的维护提供了支持,”访问新疆的俾路支说。外交官代表团的一部分。

“同样,我没有看到任何文化压制的迹象。他们的语言,音乐和舞蹈表明维吾尔文化是新疆人民生活的重要组成部分,“她说。

在被问及“被恐怖主义困扰”的新疆安全局势时,俾路支说:“我们了解到最近采取的措施已经改善了新疆的安全局势,最近几个月没有发生过恐怖事件。”

“正在采取的反恐措施是多方面的,不仅仅关注执法方面。教育,扶贫和发展是中国政府反恐战略的关键,“她说。

新疆地方政府邀请外交使节以及来自俄罗斯,哈萨克斯坦,吉尔吉斯斯坦,乌兹别克斯坦,塔吉克斯坦,印度,巴基斯坦,印度尼西亚,马来西亚,阿富汗,泰国和科威特的代表报道有关数千名维吾尔族和其他穆斯林被大规模拘留的报道教育营地。

联合国驻日内瓦的消除种族歧视委员会去年表示,对于在维新地区被拘留并且要求立即释放的“维吾尔族和其他穆斯林少数民族的大量报道”感到震惊。

据他们说,对它们的估计“从数万到数百万不等”。

中国为这些难民营辩护说,这些难民营是旨在将维吾尔族人口从极端主义和分裂主义中解放出来的再教育营地。

除联合国官员外,美国和其他几个国家对难民营表示担忧。

中国一直在对新疆的东突厥斯坦伊斯兰运动(ETIM)进行大规模镇压,在该地区占多数的维吾尔人对汉族社区日益增加的定居点感到不安。

巴基斯坦和其他几个穆斯林国家对中国镇压新疆穆斯林的沉默表示批评。

中国有大约2000万穆斯林,他们大多是维吾尔族,一个突厥族的族群,以及回族穆斯林,他们是中国人。维吾尔人居住在新疆,与巴基斯坦占领的克什米尔接壤,回族穆斯林居住在宁夏。

“环球时报”最近发表的一份报告称,中国通过了一项五年计划,旨在“将伊斯兰教中国化”,以使其与其社会主义版本兼容。

报告说:“这是中国探索现代国家宗教治理方式的重要举措。”

俾路支说,代表团可以完全和开放地访问他们在喀什和和田访问的三个中心。

“培训计划包括教授国家共同语言(中文),法律和宪法以及职业技能。学生还参加体育,音乐和舞蹈等娱乐活动。我们目睹了这些中心提供的几种技能课程,“她说。

“在访问这些中心期间,我们有机会与管理层和管理层进行互动

“我有一位刚刚从新疆回来的朋友,他曾参观过一些再教育营地,并与那里的人交谈。他告诉我,维吾尔人真的接受过职业教育,而不是开玩笑,直到完成课程才能离开。新疆政府根据他们从各种渠道收到的报告,简单地保留了他们在拘留期间可能发现的所有潜在“麻烦制造者”,其中来自社区的报告构成了主要部分。多年来,政府已经知道,受过良好教育的失业人员更容易激进。现在他们采取行动确保他们不会制造麻烦。这是中国式政府行为的另一个例子,就像独生子女政策一样。“

另一个写道,

“今年夏天,我亲自去过新疆约20天。我完全靠自己去了。我没有在任何旅行社注册任何旅行团。我没有开车但乘坐火车,公共汽车,汽车或马。从我个人的经验来看,首先,维吾尔人不是新疆唯一的少数民族。我看过蒙古人,哈萨克人,回族穆斯林和其他许多少数民族。在这里,我的意思是,即使我们不考虑汉族人,新疆也不是维吾尔族占主导地位的地方。这是一个更加多样化的地方。其次,维吾尔人保留了他们不同的习惯,传统,语言和宗教,这些都是大多数中国人的异国情调。但他们也像中国其他地区的人一样,面临服装和习惯的西化。人们担心在中国保存他们的文化。

有趣的是,乌鲁木齐的人们很少穿着非常宗教的方式,尽管穆斯林人数众多。有人告诉我,当地政府认为一些宗教服装是极端主义,因为它们与当地传统不符。也许他们的意思是当地穆斯林不应该像严格的宗教法一样穿着极端分子,因为中国没有这样的法律。人们大多穿着相当现代的外观,或穿着传统服装,但没有女人会用黑色丝绸遮住脸。

第三,不同民族之间存在不信任。我不得不承认,因为我觉得即使是同一族裔的人也不相互信任,更不用说种族群体之间的不信任了。在乌鲁木齐,安全检查非常严格,几乎无处不在。在城市公园的大门口,我在几秒钟内通过了检查站,但是一个看起来像维吾尔族的男人花了很长时间才通过。虽然保安本人似乎也是维吾尔族,但她仍然非常仔细地检查了该男子的身份证和电脑资料。在许多其他地方,我也感受到成为汉族人的“特权”。在东土耳其斯坦共和国所在的伊犁,我被告知一年前维吾尔族恐怖分子用长剑在附近的自动取款机上杀害了维吾尔族警察。恐怖分子希望从军官那里获得枪支。所以这个城市在深夜限制了所有活动。任何在午夜后出门的人都会被认为是可疑的,警察可以在街上或办公室检查他们的身份证。在这里,我想进一步解释,因为在大多数中国城市,你可以随时在夜间闲逛,除非有人抱怨噪音等,否则警察不会在街上巡逻检查你的身份证。

当然,不信任会产生种族主义。在乌鲁木齐,我问为什么少数民族以不友好的方式对待,他们试图告诉我这是因为新疆非常独特的情况。听起来像歧视是自然的,但我不能根据我学到的东西来判断。一位出租车司机告诉我,正是伊斯兰教的信仰使得维吾尔族与最近由共产党领导的社会不和谐,并且宗教是有毒的。我认为他指的是伊斯兰极端主义,但看似偏颇。

第四,我试图了解人们对2009年骚乱的态度,并得到维吾尔族和汉族的类似回应。他们都害怕骚乱,并试图告诉我那天是多么可怕。乌鲁木齐当地人的一些维吾尔人声称,所有这些恐怖主义分子都不是该市的当地人,并试图杀死所有公民,不论种族如何,这些都使他们变得可怕。在我的旅程中,我遇到的大部分维吾尔人都是友好的农民,其中一些人甚至愿意免费接待我。有一次,我乘坐了6个小时的公共汽车,我和一个坐在我旁边的维吾尔人说话。我们几乎谈论了一切,包括我们的家乡,我们的家庭等等。这家伙非常健谈和友好,给我留下了对维吾尔族的非常好的印象。

最后,我的意思是,我从未听说过再教育营。所以我猜这与正常人的生活无关。我遇到的少数民族通常非常健谈,并向我抱怨许多事情,包括政策,t自20世纪90年代以来,三大邪恶势力 – 恐怖主义,宗教极端主义和分裂主义 – 成为中国新疆的祸害,并实施了一系列骇人听闻的恐怖袭击,包括2009年7月5日在乌鲁木齐发生的事件。我们该怎么办?除了采取有力措施外,我们还需要为三种邪恶力量移除土壤。所有这些措施旨在帮助那些受到三种邪恶势力煽动或受极端主义影响的人回归理性,回归社会过正常生活。为实现这一目标,中国根据中国宪法,反恐法和新疆维吾尔自治区关于反激进化的条例建立了培训中心,并参考了其他国家反恐的成功经验。

新疆的培训中心不针对任何民族或某些宗教,所有人都得到平等对待,不受歧视。一个人是否应该进入中心有两个标准 – 他们是否参与了三个邪恶势力的非法活动以及他们是否对社会构成威胁。

例如,一些人使用社交媒体,例如WhatsApp,在网上宣传圣战或在不严重构成犯罪的情况下传播有关暴力的视频。这些人去了培训中心。有些人因参加恐怖主义或极端主义活动而被判入狱,但拒绝放弃极端主义并计划报复,也需要前往培训中心。

简而言之,遵守法律法规并且不做任何错误行为的人不需要担心“去训练中心”,无论他们来自哪个民族,无论他们的宗教信仰是什么。培训中心不是监狱,而是公立学校。学校只有一个目标 – 教育人们并阻止好人变坏。人们在中心学到了什么?他们学习普通话,以确保所有中国公民都能理解,能说,并能写出全国共同语言。这是来自任何文明国家的公民的基本要求和责任。

学员学习法律知识,以便所有中国公民都明白他们生活在21世纪,法律已经到位并严格执行,任何违反法律的人都将被追究责任。受训者应该具备基本的法律意识,这样他们就不会被极端主义所诱惑。他们还学习中心的职业技能,包括糕点制作,编织和纺织印花,制鞋和修理机械,美发和化妆以及电子商务。学员可以根据自己的兴趣选择一到两种技能。他们将有更多的机会获得就业机会,并且更少有机会参与三股邪恶势力。

随着这些培训中心的工作顺利实施,越来越多的学员从中心毕业,回到社会,过上了更好的生活。这些培训中心没有酷刑,只有保护和尊重人权。与假新闻相反,受训者的宗教和传统得到充分尊重 – 所有中心都提供各种食物,包括清真食品供他们选择。有不同的娱乐活动,包括唱歌,跳舞,唱歌或打篮球,以保持身体健康。谈到人权问题,让我提一个问题,如果一个现代人不能理解或写出该国的共同语言,不了解现代婚姻或零职业技能,只能将妻子奴役在家或受到她安排的丈夫的虐待。被三种邪恶势力使用或洗脑,你怎么能说他或她理解人权呢?

所有事实都说明培训中心的工作是有效和有益的。目前,中国新疆的稳定和局势有所改善,两年多来该地区没有发生暴力事件。这不仅对新疆维护安全工作产生积极影响,而且对维护邻近中亚地区的稳定作出了重大贡献。

新疆维吾尔自治区政府主席Shohrat Zakir:

新疆建立了以专业职业培训机构为平台的培训模式:学习国家的共同语言,法律知识,职业技能,以去极化教育为主要内容,以就业为主要方向。职业培训机构设立了教学,管理,医疗,物流和安全等部门,并配置了相应数量的教师,班级顾问,医疗,餐饮,物流和安保人员。在学习和培训的过程中,

学员将学习国家的共同语言,学习法律知识和职业技能。首先,学员将学习国家的共同语言,以提高他们的沟通能力,获得现代科学知识,增进他们对中国历史,文化和国情的了解。教学遵循标准化计划,教科书,材料和系统。学员将以各种适合其识字的方法进行教学,以提高他们尽快使用国家共同语言的能力。其次,法律知识的学习是培养学员的民族意识,公民意识和法治的关键部分。聘请法律专家讲授宪法,刑法和民法等,并邀请法官,检察官和律师教授刑法,公安管理法,反恐法,婚姻法法律,教育法和新疆的去极化法规。第三,职业学习被视为帮助学员找到工作的关键方式。建立了服装和鞋类制作,食品加工,电子产品组装,排版和印刷,美发和电子商务课程,以满足当地社会需求和就业市场。为有学习欲望和能力的学员提供多技能培训,使他们在毕业后获得一到两种职业技能。服装制造,手机组装和民族美食餐饮业务的企业安排为学员提供实际机会。与此同时,他们获得基本收入和奖金。该机制已经形成,学员可以“学习,练习和赚钱”。

在日常生活中,职业院校和学校严格贯彻法律法规精神,包括宪法和宗教事务规章,尊重和保护各民族的风俗习惯及其对饮食和日常生活的信仰。各机构和学校的院系也在免费教育的基础上,尽力确保和满足学员在学习,生活和娱乐方面的需求。自助餐厅准备营养丰富的免费饮食,宿舍设备齐全,配有收音机,电视,空调,浴室和淋浴。已经建成了篮球,排球和乒乓球的室内和室外运动场地,以及阅览室,计算机实验室,电影放映室以及小型礼堂和露天舞台等表演场地。举办各种活动,如演讲,写作,舞蹈,歌唱和体育比赛。许多学员说,他们以前受到极端主义思想的影响,从未参加过这种艺术和体育活动,现在他们已经意识到生活可以如此丰富多彩。

此外,职业院校和学校高度重视学员的心理健康,帮助他们解决生活中的问题。他们不仅提供专业的心理咨询服务,还适当处理学员及其家属的投诉。这一切都表明,职业院校和学校的管理是以人为本的。

在一场涉及穆斯林在收费站战斗的冲突爆发后,中国检察官禁止在社交媒体上使用“反伊斯兰”字样。微博阻止对穆斯林和搜索引擎不尊重的短语阻止侮辱,嘲弄和诽谤性言论,“现在是时候删除歧视伊斯兰教的激进短语,并且对穆斯林有偏见,以防止对他们的网络仇恨恶化。这些短语严重破坏了宗教和谐与民族团结,“北京中央民族大学北京教授熊昆新说。 “中国关闭了开斋节祈祷的街道,支付穆斯林中国人朝向朝觐,并审查互联网和社交媒体,以防止批评伊斯兰教可能会加剧社会紧张局势。他们应该突然要求穆斯林交出他们的Qurans和祈祷垫的想法是经典的假新闻和国家宣传。因此,和平可能会爆发,最近西方企业媒体发布的大量虚假消息将中国政府视为对人权的严重侵犯,而帝国则扼杀,轰炸,挨饿和杀害数百万穆斯林儿童,从阿富汗到也门和数百万人流离失所。“

十年前…… 新疆社区暴力 – 马克思主义观     From ten years ago….. Xinjiang Communal Violence – Marxist View

……………..

Zhōngguó: Wéiwú’ěr rén hé zhèngzhì yīsīlán jiào

Trump May be in Too Deep to Avoid War with Iran – by Patrick Cockburn (Independent) 23 June 2019

Iran Map

President Trump’s last-minute change of mind over launching US airstrikes against Iran shows that a military conflict of some description in the Gulf is becoming highly probable. His hesitation was most likely less connected with an Iranian surface-to-air missile shooting down a US surveillance drone than with his instinct that militarising the crisis is not in America’s best interests.

If Trump had not pulled back and the strikes against Iranian radars and missile batteries had gone ahead, where exactly would that have got him? This sort of limited military operation is usually more effective as a threat than in actuality. The US is not going to launch an all-out war against Iran in pursuit of a decisive victory and anything less creates more problems than it resolves.

Iran would certainly retain post-strike the ability to launch pin-prick attacks up and down the Gulf and, especially, in and around the 35-mile wide Strait of Hormuz through which passes 30 per cent of the world’s oil trade. Anything affecting this choke point reverberates around the word: news of the shooting down of the drone immediately sent the price of benchmark Brent crude oil rocketing upwards by 4.75 per cent.

Drone over Iran

Note that the Iranian surface-to-air missile shot down a $130m (£100m) drone, in practice an unmanned aircraft stuffed with electronic equipment that was designed to be invulnerable to such an attack. The inference is that if US aircraft – as opposed to missiles – start operating over or close to Iranian airspace then they are likely to suffer losses.

But the dilemma for Trump is at a deeper level. His sanctions against Iran, reimposed after he withdrew the US from the Iran nuclear deal in 2018, are devastating the Iranian economy. The US Treasury is a more lethal international power than the Pentagon. The EU and other countries have stuck with the deal, but they have in practice come to tolerate the economic blockade of Iran.

Iran was left with no choice but to escalate the conflict. It wants to make sure that the US, the European and Asian powers, and US regional allies Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, feel some pain. Tehran never expected much from the EU states, which are still signed up to the 2015 nuclear deal, and has found its low expectations are being fulfilled.

A fundamental misunderstanding of the US-Iran confrontation is shared by many commentators. It may seem self-evident that the US has an interest in using its vast military superiority over Iran to get what it wants. But after the failure of the US ground forces to win in Iraq and Afghanistan, not to mention Somalia, no US leader can start a land war in the Middle East without endangering their political survival at home.

Trump took this lesson to heart long before he became president. He is a genuine isolationist in the American tradition. The Democrats and much of the US media have portrayed Trump as a warmonger, though he has yet to start a war. His national security adviser John Bolton and secretary of state Mike Pompeo issue bloodcurdling threats against Iran, but Trump evidently views such bellicose rhetoric as simply one more way of ramping up the pressure on Iran.

But if a ground war is ruled out, then Iran is engaged in the sort of limited conflict in which it has long experience. A senior Iraqi official once said to me that the Iranians “have a PhD” in this type of part political, part military warfare. They are tactics that have worked well for Tehran in Lebanon, Iraq and Syria over the past 40 years. The Iranians have many pressure points against the US, and above all against its Saudi and Emirati allies in the Gulf.

The Iranians could overplay their hand: Trump is an isolationist, but he is also a populist national leader who claims in his first campaign rallies for the next presidential election to “have made America great again”. Such boasts make it difficult to not retaliate against Iran, a country he has demonised as the source of all the troubles in the Middle East.

One US military option looks superficially attractive but conceals many pitfalls. This is to try to carry out operations along the lines of the limited military conflict between the US and Iran called the “tanker war”. This was part of the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s and the US came out the winner.

Saddam Hussein sought to throttle Iran’s oil exports and Iran tried to do the same to Iraq. The US and its allies weighed in openly on Saddam Hussein’s side – an episode swiftly forgotten by them after the Iraqi leader invaded Kuwait in 1990. From 1987 on, re-registered Kuwaiti tankers were being escorted through the Gulf by US warships. There were US airstrikes against Iranian ships and shore facilities, culminating in the accidental but very avoidable shooting down of an Iranian civil airliner with 290 passengers on board by the USS Vincennes in 1988. Iran was forced to sue for peace in its war with Iraq.

Some retired American generals speak about staging a repeat of the tanker war today but circumstances have changed. Iran’s main opponent in 1988 was Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and Iran was well on its way to losing the war, in which there was only one front.

Today Saddam is gone and Iraq is ruled by a Shia-dominated government. Baghdad is trying to stay neutral in the US-Iran crisis, but no Iraqi leader can afford to oppose Iran as the greatest Shia power. The political geography of this part of the Middle East has been transformed since the Iran-Iraq war, with change very much to the advantage of Iran. From the Afghan border to the Mediterranean – in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon – Shia communities are in control or are the most powerful forces in the state. The US and UK often refer to them as “Iranian proxies” but in practice Iran leads a sectarian coalition with a religious basis.

It is a coalition which has already won its main battles – with Shia parties in Iraq, Bashar al-Assad in Syria, Hezbollah in Lebanon – and this outcome is not going to change. The Houthis in Yemen, who belong to a different Shia variant, have survived a prolonged attempt by Saudi Arabia and UAE to defeat them.

Compared with 28 years ago in the Gulf when the US was last fighting a limited war with Iran, the US is in a weaker position. Israel, Saudi Arabia and UAE may have urged Trump to tear up the nuclear deal and confront Iran, but they show no enthusiasm to join any war that ensues. Supposing that this month’s pin-prick attacks on tankers were indeed carried out by Iran, which seems likely, then the purpose will have been to send message that, if Iran’s oil exports can be cut off, so too can those of the other Gulf producers. Trump thinks he can avoid the quagmire of another Middle East war, but he may already be in too deep.

 

(Republished from The Independent )

The Ongoing Imperialist Restructuring of the Greater Middle East – by C.J. Hopkins • 25 June 2019

So, according to the corporate media, and to President Literally Hitler, himself, while America was sleeping last Friday morning, the U.S. Air Force was just minutes away from bombing the bejesus out of some desolate outposts somewhere in the Iranian desert and launching another catastrophic military blunder in the Middle East.

At approximately 0400 Zulu time, President Hitler and his top advisors (among them, John “the Walrus of Death” Bolton) were gathered in the Pentagon’s War Room, flight paths arcing across the big board. The hotline to Vladimir Putin’s office in St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow had been activated. The full force of the U.S. military was about to be brought to bear upon a package of top-level Iranian targets with no strategic value whatsoever. Apparently,planes were in the air!” It was all so terribly, terribly exciting.

This awesome demonstration of American resolve was meant to be punishment for the vicious slaughter of an expensive U.S. military drone, which was peacefully invading Iranian airspace, and not at all attempting to provoke the Iranians into blowing it out of the sky with a missile so the U.S. military could “retaliate.” The military-industrial complex would never dream of doing anything like that, not even to further the destabilization and restructuring of the Greater Middle East that they’ve been systematically carrying out the since the collapse of the former Soviet Union, which … more on that in just a moment.

Nor did the incursion into Iranian airspace of this non-provocative military drone have anything whatsoever to do with the crippling economic sanctions the U.S.A. has imposed on Iran in order to completely destroy its economy and foment a coup against its leaders, who are allegedly conspiring with Hezbollah and al Qaeda to develop an arsenal of nuclear weapons to launch at Israel and Saudi Arabia, and other peaceful Middle Eastern democracies, and who were possibly responsible for the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and, who knows, maybe even the Holocaust!

Iran, remember, is aterrorist nation,” which is not playing ball with the “international community,” which is why NATO has it completely surrounded and is flying hundred million dollar military drones up and down its coastline. Also, they don’t like homosexuals (i.e., the Iranians, not NATO, of course), and they burn big American flags on television, and are generally Hitlerian in every other way. On top of which, they’re allies of Russia, the fount of all democracy-hating, fascist evil in the world today.

Which, I don’t know, makes it kind of weird that President Hitler would want to attack them, and destroy their economy with those crippling sanctions. I mean, why would Putin allow him to do that? What was the point of brainwashing all those African Americans with those Facebook ads if his Manchurian President Hitler Puppet was just going to let The Walrus of Death and his deep state cronies bomb his allies? Honestly, the more I watch of this movie, the less the plot makes sense to me … but, hey, I’m just a political satirist, and not a professional Putin-Naziologist, or a geopolitical analyst, or whatever.

If I were (i.e., a geopolitical analyst), I guess I might want to take a step back and try to frame last week’s events within a broader historical context, rather than getting all worked up by the manufactured mass hysteria of the moment. If I did that, things might look a bit clearer, albeit somewhat less terribly exciting.

For example, that destabilization and restructuring of the Greater Middle East I just mentioned above, which has been in progress since the early 1990s, regardless of who was sleeping in the White House. The Gulf War, the Iraq War, the “Arab Spring,” Egypt, Libya, Syria, et cetera … if I were a geopolitical analyst, I might be able to discern a pattern there, and possibly even some sort of strategy.

If I were a particularly cynical analyst, it might look to me like global capitalism, starting right around 1990, freed by the collapse of the U.S.S.R. to do whatever the hell it wanted, more or less immediately started dismantling uncooperative power structures throughout the Greater Middle East. My cynical theory would kind of make sense of the “catastrophic policy blunders” that the United States has supposedly made in Iraq, Libya, and throughout the region, not to mention the whole “Global War on Terror,” and what it is currently doing to Syria, and Iran.

Take a good look at this Smithsonian map of where the U.S.A. is “combating terrorism.” Note how the U.S. military (i.e., global capitalism’s unofficial “enforcer”) has catastrophically blundered its way into more or less every nation depicted. Or ask our “allies” in Saudi Arabia, Israel, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and so on. OK, you might have to reach them in New York or London, or in the South of France this time of year, but, go ahead, ask them about the horrors they’ve been suffering on account of our “catastrophic blunders.”

See, according to this crackpot conspiracy theory that I would put forth if I were a geopolitical analyst instead of just a political satirist, there have been no “catastrophic policy blunders,” not for global capitalism. The Restructuring of the Greater Middle East is proceeding exactly according to plan. The regional ruling classes are playing ball, and those who wouldn’t have been regime-changed, or are being regime-changed, or are scheduled for regime change.

Sure, for the actual people of the region, and for regular Americans, the last thirty years of wars, “strategic” bombings, sanctions, fomented coups, and other such shenanigans have been a pointless waste of lives and money … but global capitalism doesn’t care about people or the “sovereign nations” they believe they live in, except to the extent they are useful. Global capitalism has no nations. All it has are market territories, which are either open for business or not.

Take a look at that map again. What you’re looking at is global capitalism cleaning up after winning the Cold War. And yes, I do mean global capitalism, not the United States of America (i.e., the “nation” most Americans think they live in, despite all evidence to the contrary). I know it hurts to accept the fact that “America” is nothing but a simulation projected onto an enormous marketplace … but seriously, do you honestly believe that the U.S. government and its military serve the interests of the American people? If so, go ahead, review the history of their activities since the Second World War, and explain to me how they have benefited Americans … not the corporatist ruling classes, regular working class Americans, many of whom can’t afford to see a doctor, or buy a house, or educate their kids, not without assuming a lifetime of debt to some global financial institution.

OK, so I digressed a little. The point is, “America” is not at war with Iran. Global capitalism is at war with Iran. The supranational corporatist empire. Yes, it wears an American face, and waves a big American flag, but it is no more “American” than the corporations it comprises, or the governments those corporations own, or the military forces those governments control, or the transnational banks that keep the whole show running.

This is what Iran and Syria are up against. This is what Russia is up against. Global capitalism doesn’t want to nuke them, or occupy them. It wants to privatize them, like it is privatizing the rest of the world, like it has already privatized America … according to my crackpot theory, of course.

But, again, I’m just a political satirist, not a geopolitical analyst. What the hell do I know about anything? Probably, if we just impeach Donald Trump, or The Walrus of Death, or elect Joe Biden, or Bernie Sanders, or some other individual, we can put an end to all these catastrophic blunders that America keeps making in the Middle East.

So forget about my crackpot conspiracy theories, and let’s get back to whatever terribly exciting crisis is unfolding today. Seriously, my brain kind of hurts. I can’t wait to switch on the Internet and find out who’s threatening America at the moment … Russians, Iranians, Venezuelans, anti-Semites, Mexican migrants, Nazis? The possibilities are endless.

Ready? OK, here we go.

……………

C. J. Hopkins is an award-winning American playwright, novelist and political satirist based in Berlin. His plays are published by Bloomsbury Publishing (UK) and Broadway Play Publishing (USA). His debut novel, ZONE 23, is published by Snoggsworthy, Swaine & Cormorant Paperbacks. He can be reached at cjhopkins.com or consentfactory.org.

China: Uyghurs and Political Islam – by Godfree Roberts • 25 June 2019

 

I recall, as probably most people don’t, that the Central Intelligence Agency, with assistance from some of China’s neighbors, put $30 million into the destabilization of Tibet and basically financed and trained the participants in the Khampa rebellion and ultimately sought to remove the Dalai Lama from Tibet–which they did. They escorted him out of Tibet to Dharamsala. There were similar efforts made with the Uyghurs during the Cold War that never really got off the ground. In both cases you had religion waved as a banner in support of a desire for independence or autonomy which, of course, is anathema to any state. US Ambassador Chas. H. Freeman.

Since our media have confined themselves to unsupported allegations, I’ve collected several first-hand accounts of happenings in Xinjiang, an area of China I myself have never visited.

Many Chinese consider Uyghurs the descendants of a marooned, white imperialist army living on land that was China’s long before they arrived. Edgar Snow[1] visited Xinjiang in 1937 and reported, “Especially in the ninth century, when vast hordes of Ouigour Turks (whose great leader Seljuk had not yet been born) were summoned to the aid of the T’ang Court to suppress rebellion, Islamism entrenched itself in China. Following their success, many of the Ouigours were rewarded with titles and great estates and settled in the Northwest and in Szechuan and Yunnan. Over a period of centuries the Mohammedans stoutly resisted Chinese absorption but gradually lost their Turkish culture, adopted much that was Chinese, and became more or less submissive to Chinese law. Yet in the nineteenth century they were still powerful enough to make two great bids for power: one when Tu Wei-hsiu for a time set up a kingdom in Yunnan and proclaimed himself Sultan Suleiman; and the last, in 1864, when Mohammedans seized control of all the Northwest and even invaded Hupeh.”

Islam is neither the Uyghurs’ native religion nor their only one but, in its Wahabbi form, it has caused problems around the world, for which we can thank to two fervent Christians, Jimmy Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski,[2] who considered a united Eurasia, “The only possible challenge to American hegemony.”

In 1979, months before the Soviet entry into Afghanistan, Brzezinski drafted and Carter signed a top-secret Presidential Order authorizing the CIA to train fundamentalist Muslims to wage Jihad against the Soviet Communist infidels and all unbelievers of conservative Sunni Islam and the Mujahideen terror war against Soviet soldiers in Afghanistan became the largest covert action in CIA history.[2] Brzezinski’s ‘Arc of Crisis’ strategy inflamed Muslims in Central Asia to destabilize the USSR during its economic crisis and, when Le Nouvel Observateur later asked if he had any regrets, Brzezinski snapped, “What is most important to the history of the world? Some stirred-up Muslims or the liberation of Central Europe?”

The Uyghurs had collaborated with the Japanese in WWII and Rebiya Kadeer, ‘Mother of the Uyghurs’ and a US Government client, after kissing the ground at Yasukuni Shrine, called Xinjiang’s postwar reversion to Chinese administration a ‘reconquest.’ Ms Kadeer’s connections are interesting. In the late 1990s Hasan Mahsum, founder of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, ETIM, moved its headquarters to Kabul and met with Osama bin Laden and the CIA-trained Taliban to coordinate action across Central Asia. In 1995 Recep Tayyip Erdogan, then mayor of Istanbul declared, “Eastern Turkestan [Xinjiang] is not only the home of the Turkic peoples but also the cradle of Turkic history, civilization and culture. To forget that would lead to the ignorance of our own history, civilizati on and culture. The martyrs of Eastern Turkestan are our martyrs.” Under Erdogan Turkey became the transit point for international terrorists destined for Syria and Turkish airports were filled with Uyghurs traveling on Turkish passports.

Twenty years later, in 1999, the CIA’s Islam strategist, Graham E. Fuller, announced, “The policy of guiding the evolution of Islam and of helping them against our adversaries worked marvelously well in Afghanistan against the Russians. The same doctrines can still be used to destabilize what remains of Russian power, and especially to counter the Chinese influence in Central Asia.”[3]

We will return to Mr. Fuller anon but, first, some background from F. William Engdahl, “Today the West–and especially Washington–is engaged in full-scale irregular war against the stability of China. In recent months Western media and the Washington Administration have begun to raise a hue and cry over alleged mass internment camps in China’s northwestern Xinjiang where supposedly up to one million ethnic Uyghur Chinese are being detained and submitted to various forms of ‘re-education.’ Several things about the charges are notable, not the least that all originate from Western media and ‘democracy’ NGOs like Human Rights Watch, whose record for veracity leaves something to be desired.”

Tarring China with the brush of intolerance will be hard work. The colophon of the earliest dated, printed book in existence–a ninth century Chinese translation of the Diamond Sutra–reads, ‘For universal free distribution.’ Though two-thirds of Chinese are atheists in the Western sense and one-fourth are non-religious Taoists, their Constitution guarantees freedom of worship in government-sanctioned religious organizations and their government supports seventy-four seminaries, one thousand seven hundred Tibetan monasteries, three thousand religious organizations, 85,000 religious sites and 300,000 full time Catholic, Protestant, Buddhist, Ancient Chinese, Taoist and Muslim clergy. The 2000 census recorded 20.3 million Muslims: 1.25 million Kazakhs, 8.4 million Uyghurs and 9.8 million Hui. Neither the Kazakh nor the Hui Muslims have caused trouble.

Mr. Fuller is on a first name basis with Uyghur leaders. Ruslan Tsarni, uncle of the Boston Marathon Tsarnaev brothers, was married to Fuller’s daughter Samantha in the 1990s and was an employee of the CIA-contracted RAND Corporation. In media interviews in the aftermath of the 2013 Boston bombing, ‘Uncle Ruslan’ gave an overdone performance condemning his two nephews while verifying the FBI’s portrayal of them. The media ignored the fact that Tsarni not only worked as a consultant for CIA fronts like RAND and USAID and as a contractor for Halliburton but even established an entity called the Congress of Chechen International Organizations which supported Islamic separatist militants in the Caucasus, using Fuller’s Maryland home as its registered address.

After deploying Islamists in Pakistan in the 2000s to disrupt Chinese infrastructure, in Myanmar to disrupt the China-Myanmar energy assets and across Sudan, Libya and Syria to choke off China’s oil and gas Fuller said, “Uyghurs are indeed in touch with Muslim groups outside Xinjiang, some of them have been radicalized into broader jihadist politics in the process, a handful were earlier involved in guerrilla or terrorist training in Afghanistan, and some are in touch with international Muslim mujahideen struggling for Muslim causes of independence worldwide.” Fuller assigned them to capitalize on the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, weaken trust in China’s government and provoke repression that Western media could condemn as ‘human rights crimes.’ Three weeks before the Games he sponsored a conference, “East Turkestan: 60 Years under Communist Chinese Rule” and the National Endowment for Democracy, NED,[4] handled PR for the World Uyghur Congress (WUC) the emigré group headed by billionaire Rebiya Kadeer[5] and her husband, Sidiq Rouzi, a Voice of America employee. Their ideology[6] is familiar.

On the eve of the Olympics an attempted suicide bombing on a China Southern Airlines flight was thwarted but terrorists in Kashgar, Southern Xinjiang, killed sixteen police officers four days before the opening. The next year Uighur extremists murdered another two hundred in Urumqi but Western media refused to characterize the attacks as acts of terrorism and the violence continued:

  • October 2013: ETIM attack at Tiananmen Square in Beijing killed five.
  • February 2014: A knife attack at a train station in Kunming killed 30.
  • April 2014: A knife and bomb attack in Urumqi killed three and wounded 79.
  • May 2014: Two cars crashed into a market in Urumqi and the attackers lobbed explosives, killing 31 people.
  • September 2014: Suicide bombers and clashes left 50 people dead and 50 injured.
  • October 2015: A knife attack on a coalmine killed 50.

Then came the Syrian War and, on the sidelines of a May 2017 meeting between Syrian and Chinese businessmen in Beijing, Syria’s ambassador[7] to China startled reporters with a surprising number, 5000, the number of Uighurs he claimed were fighting in Syria for various jihadist groups. Many have since returned to China and 12,900 (Uyghur families insist on traveling and staying together, even in prison) have been sentenced to up to two years, mostly for illegally entering the country and are held in re-education camps. The NED is not hiding its involvement:

NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY

China (Xinjiang/East Turkistan). ASIA China [Xinjiang/East Turkistan] Advocacy and Outreach for Uyghur Human Rights Project. $310,000.

To raise awareness about Uyghur human rights issues and to bring such issues to prominence globally. The grantee will research, document, and provide independent and accurate information about human rights violations affecting Uyghurs in China. It will also conduct outreach to Chinese citizens in an effort to improve the human rights conditions for Uyghurs. The grantee will organize leadership and advocacy training seminars for Uyghur youth; monitor, document, and highlight human rights violations in East Turkestan/Xinjiang; and strengthen advocacy on Uyghur issues at the United Nations and the European Parliament.

Today, NED money supports the World Uyghur Congress (WUC) which calls China’s Xinjiang Province ‘East Turkistan’ and China’s administration of Xinjiang as ‘Chinese occupation of East Turkistan,’ runs articles like, Op-ed: A Profile of Rebiya Kadeer, Fearless Uyghur Independence Activist,” and admits that Kadeer seeks Uyghur independence from China.

Faced with an armed insurrection, most states impose martial law or a state of emergency, as Britain did in Malaya from 1945 to 1957 and the US did with the Patriot Act, but China decided–despite popular outrage–to write off its losses and play the long game.

China founded The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO),[1] a political, economic, and security alliance, with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, who stopped funneling money and providing corridors for Uyghur terrorists to move into and out of China. The SCO has since expanded to include India and Pakistan and Iran has begun the accession process, making it world’s largest security pact in both area and population and the only one whose membership includes four nuclear powers.

Forming the SCO was easier than assuaging public outrage. An unheard-of lawsuit by victims’ relatives accused the government of reverse discrimination so they stepped up security and published their objectives:

  1. restore law and order
  2. prevent terrorists from inflicting more violence
  3. use ‘high-intensity regulation’
  4. contain the spread of terrorism beyond Xinjiang
  5. purge extremists and separatists from society.

Neighborhood community centres–labelled ‘concentration camps’ in the western press–educate rural Uyghurs about the perils of religious extremism and train them for urban jobs.

In 2013 President Xi toured Eurasia and proposed the Belt and Road Initiative for three billion people, designed to create the biggest market in the world with unparalleled development potential, and built a gas pipeline to China from Turkmenistan through Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan which, like China’s other western pipelines, power lines, and rail and road networks, runs through the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Beijing then moved jobs to Xinjiang and opened vocational schools to train rural youth in literacy and job skills and swore to protect its neighbors from terrorism in exchange for their pledge to reciprocate. To create jobs in the province Xi directed investment from forty-five of China’s top companies and eighty Fortune 500 manufacturers to Urumqi. Corporate investment increased from $10 billion in 2015 to $15 billion in 2017 and infrastructure investments of $70 billion in both 2017 and 2018 lifted the annual goods shipments past 100 million tons with a goal of hourly departures to fifteen European capitals. Half a million Uyghurs have relocated from remote villages to cities and, as a reult, 600,000 Uighurs were lifted out of poverty in 2016, 312,000 in 2017 and 400,000 in 2018. The last poor Uyghurs will join the cash economy in mid-2020.

The real war is being fought in our media and an engineer encountered a classic example in the heartbreaking tale of savage destruction of historic Kashgar Old Town, which The Washington Post called, “An Ancient Culture, Bulldozed Away,” The New York Times, “To Protect an Ancient City, China Moves to Raze It,” TIME, “Tearing Down Old Kashgar: Another Blow to the Uighurs.” Professor Patrik Meyer⁠ takes up the story:

As a tourist, those headlines resonate with me, too. I wish to keep the Kashgar Old Town untouched and to be able to wander along its narrow, shaded alleys lined by adobe houses. However, if I were responsible for the living conditions and safety of its residents, as well as for the modernization of Kashgar writ large, then I would see Beijing’s transformation in a more positive light. Given the almost unprecedented access I was granted between 2010 and 2013 to conduct ethno-political research in Xinjiang and my robust background in civil engineering, I consider myself well positioned to provide a broader perspective on the issues raised by Western journalists when criticizing the KOT renewal project. A simple survey of Western media outlets shows that harsh criticism of Beijing’s renewal of the KOT is built on four central arguments: demolition of Uyghur’s historical heritage, destruction of Uyghur’s social fabric, absence of Uyghurs’ voices in the project, and the sufficient seismic performance of existing houses. Moreover, Western journalists often argue that the goal of Beijing’s works in Kashgar is to weaken, or even erase, Uyghur identity, not to improve their living conditions.

KOT’s historical value is indisputable, but it is not as significant as assumed by the Western critics. While some houses are centennial, with charismatic courtyards and beautifully decorated wooden frames, the majority are a poorly built patchwork of old and new mud and masonry walls. Hence, while the old town as whole has significant historical value, many of its houses are not historically valuable. Kashgar is one of the few Chinese cities where the old town is being partly preserved and remodeled following traditional standards. There is indeed some damage being caused to the Uyghurs’ historical heritage, but it is far less significant than the Western critics claim and it is intended to modernize Kashgar, not to “Demolish the Uyghur History” as argued by the Smithsonian. The second dominant argument, the tearing apart the Uyghur identity, is also happening, but again, not to the extent or for the purpose that it is being reported in the West. China’s fast modernization results in numerous communities being reshaped and displaced, including the one in the KOT. However, when asked for their view about Beijing’s renewal of the KOT, most of its dwellers welcome it. And for good reasons. Their houses are often very small, poorly ventilated, dusty and dark, have no toilets, and are unpractical. It is those who do not live in the old town–Uyghurs, tourist, and Western journalists–who are most critical of the renewal project. Hence, I believe that the KOT project is causing Uyghur identity change, not its destruction, as argued by the West.

As for the third argument, that the Uyghurs have no say in the project, it is again only partially correct. Their voice is indeed absent from the upper levels of the project’s decision making process. However, the majority of homeowners decide whether to stay or leave the KOT and how to proceed with the repair of their houses. They are offered three options, the first being to permanently move to a free, new apartment larger their old house. Second, they can opt to let the government tear down the old house and replace it with a new structure for free, which does not included finishing works such as flooring, windows, and decoration. During the time that this work is being done, the families can rent an apartment subsidized by the government at about $900 per year. In case the house is deemed to be structurally sound, the homeowners are given a subsidy (about US$90/m2) to upgrade the house themselves. Additional subsidies are also offered for those willing to finish the façade using traditional Uyghur style. While there might be some irregularities within this system, most homeowners affected by the renewal of the KOT have the choice to stay or leave, which the Western critics seems to ignore.

Finally, a fourth dominant argument against Beijing’s KOT project is that the old town must be seismically safe because it has survived hundreds of years without being destroyed. Again, this is only partly true. There are a number of houses that were built properly over a hundred years ago, but the majority have been either poorly built or structurally modified in the last 30-50 years, making them prone to structural damage in case of a significant seismic event. Based on my expertise in seismic performance of adobe structures and my countless visits to the KOT, I can confirm that it is not feasible to retrofit most of its houses because of their deficient structural condition.

But the destruction of KOT was small beer compared to the onslaught that began in August, 2018, at the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, then conducting its regular review of China’s compliance with the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Gay McDougall, an American lay member of an independent UN body, claimed that China was interning one million Muslims. The OHCHR’s official news release showed that its sole American member made the only mention of alleged re-education camps and said she was “deeply concerned” about “credible reports” alleging mass detentions of millions of Uighurs Muslim minorities in “internment camps.” AP reported that McDougall ‘did not specify a source for that information in her remarks at the hearing’ and video from the session confirms that McDougall provided no source for her claim. Though she failed to name a single source Reuters reported, “UN SAYS IT HAS CREDIBLE REPORTS THAT CHINA HOLDS A MILLION UIGHURS IN SECRET CAMPS.”

China then invited the UN, the EU and the World Muslim Congress to send inspectors to for independent investigations. Eleven muslim nations accepted while the EU and Turkey declined. The Muslim Council’s report commended China for its treatment of Muslims and one inspector, Mumtaz Zahra Baloch, gave an interview to The Times of India:

“During this visit, I did not find any instances of forced labour or cultural and religious repression,” Mumtaz Zahra Baloch, the Charge d‘affaires, Pakistan‘s Embassy in China, told the state-run Global Times on Thursday.

“The imams we met at the mosques and the students and teachers at the Xinjiang Islamic Institute told us that they enjoy freedom in practicing Islam and that the Chinese government extends support for maintenance of mosques all over Xinjiang,” said Baloch, who visited Xinjiang as part of delegation of diplomats.

“Similarly, I did not see any sign of cultural repression. The Uighur culture as demonstrated by their language, music and dance is very much part of the life of the people of Xinjiang,” she said.

Asked about the security situation in Xinjiang, which has been “beset by terrorism”, Baloch said, “We learned that the recent measures have resulted in improvement of the security situation in Xinjiang and there have been no incidents of terrorism in recent months.”

“The counter-terrorism measures being taken are multidimensional and do not simply focus on law enforcement aspects. Education, poverty alleviation and development are key to the counter-terrorism strategy of the Chinese government,” she said.

Xinjiang‘s regional government invited diplomatic envoys as well as representatives from Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Thailand, and Kuwait following reports about detention of thousands of Uighur and other Muslims in massive education camps.

The UN‘s Geneva-based Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination last year said that it was alarmed by “numerous reports of ethnic Uighurs and other Muslim minorities” being detained in Xinjiang region and called for their immediate release.

Estimates about them “range from tens of thousands to upwards of a million,” it had said.

China defended the camps, saying they are re-education camps aimed at de-radicalising sections of the Uighur population from extremism and separatism.

The US and several other countries besides UN officials have expressed concern over the camps.

China has been carrying out massive crackdown on the East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) in Xinjiang province, where Uyghurs who formed majority in the region were restive over the increasing settlements of Han community.

Pakistan and several other Muslim countries faced criticism about their silence over China‘s crackdown on Muslims in Xinjiang.

China has about 20 million Muslims who are mostly Uighurs, an ethnic group of Turkic origin, and Hui Muslims, who are of the Chinese ethnic origin. While Uighurs lived in Xinjiang, bordering Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, Hui Muslims resided in Ningxia province.

A recent report in the Global Times said China passed a five-year plan to ‘sinicize Islam‘ in a bid to make it compatible with its version of socialism.

“This is China‘s important act to explore ways of governing religion in modern countries,” the report said.

Baloch said the delegation was given full and open access to the three centres that they visited in Kashgar and Hotan.

“The training program includes teaching of national common language (Chinese), law and constitution and vocational skills. The students also participate in recreational activities like sports, music and dance. We witnessed several skill classes being offered in these centres,” she said.

“During the visits to these centres, we had the opportunity to interact with both the management and the students. We observed the students to be in good physical health. The living facilities are fairly modern and comfortable with separate dormitories for men and women. They are being served halal food,” she said.

She said the Uighur language is being used in official establishments, airports, subway stations, police stations or hotels.

“Even the copies of the Koran that we saw in the mosques and the Islamic centre were translated into the Uighur language. The most visible sign of protection of Uighur culture by the government is the government-run bilingual kindergarten schools where children learn Putonghua as well as Uighur language and culture from a very young age,” she said.

A Chinese friend, Xiao Zhang, writes,

“I have a friend who just came back from Xinjiang and he has visited some of the re-education camps and talked with people there. He told me that Uighurs really received vocational education inside, not kidding, and cannot get out until completion of courses. The government in Xinjiang simply kept all the potential “trouble makers” they could find in detention based on the reports they received from various sources, among which reports from communities make up a major part. The government has known for years that poorly-educated, unemployed people are more easily radicalized. Now they take actions to ensure they won’t make trouble. This is another example of Chinese style of government behaviour, just like one-child policy.”

Another wrote,

“I have personally been to Xinjiang for around 20 days this summer. I went totally on my own. I did not sign up in any travel agencies for any travel groups. I did not drive but took the train, the bus, or the car, or the horse. From my personal experience, firstly, the Uyghurs are not the only minority in Xinjiang. I saw Mongols, Kazakhs, Hui Muslims and many other minorities. Here I mean Xinjiang is not a place that is dominated by Uyghurs, even if we don’t take the Han Chinese into consideration. It is a far more diverse place. Secondly, Uyghurs keep their different habits, traditions, language, and religions that are exotic to most Chinese. But they also face westernisation in clothing and habits just like people in other areas of China. People worry about the preservation of their cultures across China.

Interestingly, people in Urumqi were hardly dressed in a very religious way, although there were a great number of Muslims. I was told that the local government regarded some of the religious clothing as extremism, for they were not consistent with the local tradition. Maybe what they meant was that the local Muslims should not be dressed like extremists following strict religious laws, since there was no such law in China. People were mostly dressed in a quite modern look, or in their traditional clothing, yet no women will cover their face with black silk.

Thirdly, there is distrust between different ethnic groups. I have to admit that, because I feel that even people of the same ethnicity do not trust each other, let alone the distrust between ethnic groups. In Urumqi, the security check is very strict and almost everywhere. At the gate of a park in the city, I passed the checkpoint within seconds, but a Uyghur-looking man after me took much longer time to pass. Even though the security guard herself also seems to be Uyghur, she still checked the man’s ID cards and computer profiles very carefully. In many other places, I also feel the ‘privilege’ of being a Han Chinese. In Ili, where the East Turkestan Republic is located, I was told that Uyghur police officers were killed in an ATM nearby a year ago by the Uyghur terrorists with long swords. The terrorists were hoping to acquire guns from the officer. So the city restricted all activity in late night. Anyone who are out after midnight will be considered suspicious and the police can check their ID in the street or in the office. Here I want to make further explanation, for in most Chinese cities, it is totally safe to hang out at night at any time you want, and the police won’t patrol in the street checking your ID unless someone complains about noise and etc.

Surely there is racism arising in the distrust. In Urumqi, I asked why ethnic minorities were treated in an unfriendly way and they tried to tell me that it was because of the very unique situations in Xinjiang. Sounds like the discrimination is natural but I cannot judge based on what I learnt. A taxi driver told me that it was the Islam belief that makes the Uyghur not in harmony with the recent society led by the Communist Party and that the religion was toxic. I thought he was referring to Islamic extremism but in a seemingly biased way.

Fourth, I tried to learn about people’s attitudes towards the 2009 riots and got similar responses from Uyghurs and Han. They both feared the riots and tried to tell me how horrible that day was. Some Uyghurs who were Urumqi locals claimed that all those terrorists were not local to the city and tried to kill all the citizens with regardless of ethnicity which made them dreadful. In my journey, most of the Uyghurs I met were friendly farmers, some of whom were even willing to accommodate me for free. On one time, I was taking a 6-hour bus, I talked with a Uyghur guy sitting next to me. We almost talked about everything, including our hometowns, our families and so on. The guy was very talkative and friendly, leaving me a very good impression towards the Uyghur.

Lastly, I mean, I never heard of the re-education camp. So I guess this was not related to normal people’s life. The minorities I met were usually very talkative and complained to me about many things including the policies, the government, the relation between the Han and the minorities, except the camp. I think most Chinese people just want to live a peaceful life no matter in Xinjiang or outside Xinjiang. I was so lucky to travel in Xinjiang, because the scenery I spotted was so great that I would probably pay another visit in the future.

Another visitor, Vadim Mikhailaov, visited,

“Xinjiang appears to have no criminality whatsoever and the police in the streets are unarmed. The checkpoints aren’t too time consuming if you have a Chinese ID card and know the security guards from daily contact. At the checkpoints we visited, on the other hand, annoyed police or security guards struggled with the protocol on how to handle foreigners. We all drank until late and went home without the slightest issue. Our group was coming from many places in the West where stumbling out of a bar late at night can often be quite dangerous. We had to admit that you feel safe at night in Xinjiang. Completely safe. Most places just asked for our passports, took a look, and let us through, sometimes asking which country we came from. A few guards didn’t want to deal with the hassle and just told us to bypass the metal scanner and get out of their sight. As everything in China, enforcement is sometimes spotty. But those were the exceptions; discipline in the surveillance apparatus was generally quite high. We walked leisurely through the city, and while we attracted some attention, we were neither stopped, nor stared at, nor (I think) followed. As I mentioned, there are police everywhere; standing, walking, and driving. They’re not aggressive, or intimidating, or stopping people at random. They’re just there making themselves present.

One big difference between Turpan and Urumqi was that, again, most people were Uyghur. But the police were Uyghur, too. The people manning the checkpoints and the “convenience police stations,” and driving the patrol cars were all Uyghur. It’s worth emphasizing that whatever is happening in Xinjiang is not just an invasion by a foreign army hell-bent on annoying the locals. The locals are quite annoyed, indeed, but it’s their fellow tribesmen doing the grunt work. Or most of it, anyway. I must say that the Uyghur police we saw were more easy-going than the Han police we saw in Urumqi. More chill. Less zealous, you could say. At any rate, they never gave us a hard time, and we got plenty of smiles and easy treatment. Meanwhile France has soldiers, not police, patrolling the streets of Paris. Considering his post-resignation declaration about radical Islam replacing the Republic, I have to wonder what the former French Minister of the Interior, Gérard Collomb, would make of Xinjiang?

China’s Ambassador to Kazakhstan talked to local journalists:

Since the 1990s, the three evil forces – terrorism, religious extremism and separatism– have been a scourge in China’s Xinjiang and implemented a series of appalling terrorist attacks, including the incident in Urumqi on July 5, 2009. What should we do? Aside from taking strong measures, we also need to remove the soil for the three evil forces. All these measures aim to help people who were instigated by the three evil forces or influenced by extremism to come back to reason and to return to society to live a normal life. In order to achieve this purpose, China set up the training centers in accordance with China’s Constitution, the Counterterrorism Law and the Regulations of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region on De-radicalization and by referring to the successful experience on counterterrorism from other countries.

The training centers in Xinjiang do not target any ethnic group or certain religion and all people there are treated equally without discrimination. There are two criteria for whether an individual should be in the centers – whether they participated in illegal activities of the three evil forces and whether they pose a threat to the society.

For example, some individuals used social media, such as WhatsApp to promote jihad online or spread videos on violence in circumstances that were not serious enough to constitute a crime. These people go to the training centers. Some people, who received prison sentence for participating in terrorist or extremist activities but refuse to abandon extremism and plan to take revenge, also need to go to the training centers.

To put it simply, people who obey laws and regulations and commit no wrong deeds do not need to worry about “going to the training centers” no matter which ethnic group they are from and whatever their religion is. The training center is not prison, but a school for the public. There is only one goal for the school – to educate people and to stop good people becoming bad. What do people learn in the center? They learn Putonghua to make sure that all Chinese citizens can understand, can speak and can write the national common language. This is the basic requirement and responsibility for a citizen from any civilized country.

Trainees learn knowledge on laws so that all Chinese citizens understand that they live in the 21st Century where laws are put in place and strictly enforced and anyone who violates the laws will be held accountable. The trainees should have the basic awareness of laws so they are not so easily tempted by extremism. They also learn vocational skills at the centers, including pastry making, weaving and textile printing, shoes-making and fixing machinery, hairdressing and make-up and e-commerce. Trainees can choose one to two skills to learn based on their interests. There will be more chance for them to get employment and less risk of becoming involving with the three evil forces.

With the work of these training centers being implemented in order, more and more trainees have graduated from the centers and returned to society and earned a better life. There is no torture in these training centers but only protection and respect for human rights. In contrast to the fake news, trainees’ religions and traditions are fully respected – all the centers offer various kinds of food, including halal food for them to choose. There are different entertainment activities, including singing songs, dancing, chanting or playing basketball for their physical health. Speaking of human rights, let me ask a question, if a modern person could not understand or write the country’s common language, has no idea about modern marriage or zero vocational skills and only enslaves his wife at home or is mistreated by her arranged husband and are used or brainwashed by the three evil forces, how could you say he or she understands human rights?

All the facts have told that the work of training centers has been effective and helpful. For now, the stability and situation in China’s Xinjiang has been improved and there have been no violent incidents in the region for more than two years. It is not only a positive influence on Xinjiang’s work on maintaining security but also makes a great contribution to safeguarding the stability of the adjacent Central Asia area.

Shohrat Zakir, Chairman of the Government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region:

Xinjiang has established a training model with professional vocational training institutions as the platform: learning the country’s common language, legal knowledge, vocational skills, along with de-extremization education as the main content, with achieving employment as the key direction. The vocational training institutions have set up departments of teaching, management, medical care, logistics and security, and allocated a corresponding number of faculty, class advisors, medical, catering, logistics and security staff. In the process of learning and training, the trainees will advance from learning the country’s common language to learning legal knowledge and vocational skills. Firstly, the trainees will take learning the country’s common language as the basis to improve their communication abilities, gain modern science knowledge and enhance their understanding of Chinese history, culture and national conditions. The teaching follows standardized plans, textbooks, materials and systems. The trainees are taught in various methods suited to their literacy to raise their abilities to use the country’s common language as soon as possible. Secondly, the learning of legal knowledge is taken as a key part of cultivating the trainees’ awareness of the nation, citizenship and rule of law. Legal experts are hired to lecture on the Constitution, the criminal law and the civil law, etc., and judges, prosecutors and lawyers are invited to teach the criminal law, the law on public security administration, the anti-terrorism law, the marriage law, the education law and Xinjiang’s de-extremization regulations. Thirdly, vocational learning is taken as a key way to help trainees find employment. Courses on clothing and footwear making, food processing, electronic product assembly, typesetting and printing, hairdressing and e-commerce have been set up to suit local social needs and job market. Multi-skill training is provided to trainees who have the desire and capability to learn, so that they acquire one to two vocational skills upon graduation. Businesses in garment making, mobile phone assembly and ethnic cuisine catering are arranged to offer trainees practical opportunities. In the meantime, they are paid basic incomes and a bonus. The mechanism has taken shape in which the trainees can ‘learn, practice and earn money.

In daily life, vocational institutions and schools strictly implement the spirit of laws and regulations, including the Constitution and religious affairs regulations, and respect and protect the customs and habits of various ethnic groups and their beliefs in diet and daily life. Faculties of the institutions and schools also try their best to ensure and meet the trainees’ needs in study, life, and entertainment on the basis of free education. The cafeteria prepares nutritious free diets, and the dormitories are fully equipped with radio, TV, air conditioning, bathroom and shower. Indoor and outdoor sports venues for basketball, volleyball and table tennis have been built, along with reading rooms, computer labs, film screening rooms, as well as performance venues such as small auditoriums and open-air stages. Various activities such as contests on speech, writing, dancing, singing and sports are organized. Many trainees have said that they were previously affected by extremist thought and had never participated in such kinds of art and sports activities, and now they have realized that life can be so colorful.

Moreover, the vocational institutions and schools pay high attention to the trainees’ mental health and helped them solve problems in life. They not only provide professional psychological counseling services, but also duly deal with complaints from the trainees and their families. All this shows that the management of the vocational institutions and schools are people-oriented.

China’s censor banned the use of ‘anti-Islamic’ words on social media after a clash that involved Muslims fighting at a toll booth went viral. Weibo blocked phrases disrespectful to Muslims and search engines block insults, mockery and defamatory terms, “It’s time to remove radical phrases that discriminate against Islam and are biased against Muslims to prevent worsening online hatred towards them. Those phrases severely undermine religious harmony and ethnic unity,” said Xiong Kunxin, a professor at Beijing’s Minzu University of China in Beijing. “China closes streets for Eid prayers, pays for Muslim Chinese to make the hajj and censors the internet and social media to prevent criticisms of Islam that might inflame social tensions. The idea that they should suddenly demand that the Muslims turn over their Qurans and Prayer mats is classic fake news and state propaganda. As a result, peace may break out and the recent deluge of fake news from Western corporate media paints the Chinese government as a gross violator of human rights while the Empire has droned, bombed, starved and killed millions of Muslim children, women from Afghanistan to Yemen and displaced millions more.”

Video: A Uyghur Re-Education Camp. Translation: “The center provides professional training in clothing making, food preparation and IT. The guy named Ailijiang Masaidi said he received RMB 2800/month and sending RM2600 home. His family is very happy. The 2nd guy named Ahbulaihaidi is now working in a shoe making factory. He said he has mastered most skills and would get RMB 4000-5000/month soon, that would means RMB 60-70k a year. His technical manager says his company fully supports the factory’s effort in Hetian. The 2nd guy says that clothing factory has been set up in Yutian. The lady named Humakuli says she now work in a factory near her home Kashgar. She is working and learning at the same time. Training includes cultural learning about history about Xinjiang and about Zhonghua civilization. The narratives then says the center provides cultural and sports activities including painting, dance and Peking opera etc. The guy who dress as consort Yang is Abdula. He said every one admires him now because he is the best singer. Before he attend the center he was told that all sort of entertainment including singing and dancing is sinful. He said his life used to be gray and now is colorful. Then Kashgar National Congress Deputy Chairman Mijidi said he wants the people to learn about the traditional culture of the Uighur people. Singing and dancing are all acceptable.” The program was implemented in 2014, and since then no terrorist attack has happened in China. So it was considered a major success and was expanded greatly.

Notes

[1] Red Star Over China. Edgar Snow. 1937. Atlantic Books.

[2] The Grand Chessboard, 1990.

[3] Richard Labeviere, Dollars for Terror: The United States and Islam, Algora Publishing, 2000, p. 6.

[4] In 2017 the American government funded 48 anti-China groups and organizations through the National Endowment for Democracy, NED, to oppose and harm China’s reputation and to create social and ethnic tensions and conflicts within China. https://www.ned.org.

[5] A Chinese friend provided her background: She had 11 children, which confirms that Uighurs were not subject to China’s One Child Policy.. She was born to a family with no background. She started her business with a roadside convenience store and worked her way to be THE richest person in the province of Xinjiang. This proved Uighurs can earn their business success through hard work. She was a senior member of the People’s Congress of Xinjiang, and a senior member of the National People’s Congress of China. This shows Uighurs were not excluded from political life in China. She was arrested because she provided funding to Eastern Turkestan Independence Movement, labeled as terrorist organization by the US.

[6] “We have to conquer our own country and purify it of all infidels. Then we should conquer the infidels’ countries and spread Islam. The infidels who are usurping our countries have announced war against Islam and Muslims, forcing Muslims to abandon Islam and change their beliefs.” Abdullah Mansour, leader of the Uyghur ETIM. “The Duty of Faith and Support,” Voice of Islam/al-Fajr Media Center, August 26, 2009.

[7] “ISIS militants from China’s Muslim minority group vow to return home and ‘shed blood like rivers’ in the terror group’s first video to target the country By GARETH DAVIES FOR Daily Mail Online PUBLISHED 08:39 BST, 1 March 2017.